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19. He proposed as a preliminary step in the direction of total disarmament immediate disengagement in Europe.
20. He also repeated Britain's desire to see this question settled by the General Assembly as soon as possible, but there is still no indication whether Britain is actively lobbying for this behind the scenes.
21. The car workers' lobby last week was an important step in the right direction. The issue should be pressed throughout the trade union movement and taken up by the workers in all industries.
22. Those MPs and trade unionists, and the people who lobbied the NATO meeting yesterday and who want genuine peaceful coexistence and arms cuts, represent the true interests of the people in Britain and throughout the world.
23. Eleven Labor MPs will meet a group of American women, and other overseas deputations coming to London on May 11 to lobby the NATO council meeting.
24. Some 200 building trade workers direct from the sites lobbied the conference calling out: "No wage freeze - attack the profits - reject the incomes policy."
25. The new council, which is calling the lobby, is backed by nearly 100 MPs, national trade unions, peace organizations, church bodies and leading university professors.
26. To coventrate every town under the sun - such is the wild dream of the warmongers - and is there much difference between them and the brinkmongers?
27. The "china clay" strike which has snowballed across the Mersey docks was still on tonight, with 8,000 men away from work. At a mass meeting of Dockers at the Pier Head this evening, the Dockers overwhelmingly voted to stay out.
28. The movement "to kill the Bill" may snowball to irresistible proportions by the time when the Trades Union Congress recall conference on June 5.
29. Pravda front-pages a dispatch from its Warsaw correspondent about the work of Polish miners, among other economic progress reports from Socialist countries.
30. Even in the U. S., where intimidation has been most severe, there are many signs that large numbers of the American people are not "sold" on this line or brain-washed by the President of the A.F.L.- C.I.O.21
31. The President is not a welcome visitor, despite the massive brain-washing operation which has been mounted to convince us that the hawk has become a dove, the opportunist has turned into a man of principle.
32. Not content with slogans inciting to violence, some of the demonstrators acted in the tradition of the American lynches. Spotting a long-haired youth, they jumped off their lorry shouting: "Get him, kill him, he is a beatnik, he burnt our flag."
33. One of the reasons for the incredible consistency of the Beatles' success was their peculiar ability to keep abreast or ahead of current trends.
34. The Minister of Economy need not conclude that the British worker is too cussed to fit into an economic plan, or that he will inevitably frustrate labor mobility. But grandiose general statement in Whitehall about "shaking out labor" and redeployment are only convincing if they are accompanied by practical measures to make the intention a reality.
35. Mrs S. said: "If there is to be this so-called redeployment to the export industries, at least we should have the figures on which to work."
36. In July 1960 a team of U. N. communications specialists moved into Leopoldville and within a few days set up radio-tele-printers, almost at the very moment the first contingents of "blue helmets" were deplaning the Leopoldville airport.
37. The biggest teach-in for London Telephone Region engineers is to be launched early next year.
38. More than 100 Negro students of the Atlanta University City singing carols, staged a "sing-in" anti-jim-crow demonstration beneath a department store Christmas tree in Atlanta last Saturday.
39. Workers on strike in several enterprises have occupied their plants and are staying day and night. The first to start the sit-in and sleep-in strike were the workers of the nationally owned Sud-Aviation plant at Nantes.
40. The renewed concern about the brain drain acknowledges the general industrial malaise of which the brain drain is only a symptom; as such, it is useful but nothing very new.
41. On May 6, 1963 Brazil and Mexico submitted a Declaration on the denuclearization of Latin America.
§ 14. "ЛОЖНЫЕ ДРУЗЬЯ" ПЕРЕВОДЧИКА
Слова, относящиеся к этому разделу, можно подразделить на три группы:
1. Слова, которые имеют внешнее сходство (звучание и написание) со словами русского языка, но значение которых не всегда совпадает. Например: dramatic драматический, драматичный, неожиданный, яркий, впечатляющий, сенсационный', decade десятилетие; popular народный, популярный; formal формальный, официальный; nation нация, народ, страна; sabotage вредительство, диверсионный акт, саботаж и многие другие.
Примечание. В зависимости от контекста эти слова могут иметь другие оттенки значения и переводиться иначе.
2. Слова, которые во множественном числе приобретают новое значение, как например: difference разница, различие-.differences 1) различия, 2) разногласия; development развитие - developments события и т. д.
Примечание. Кроме того, слово development часто употребляется в значении: участок, подлежащий освоению; освоение; микрорайон и т. п.
3. Слова, употребление которых в единственном и множественном числе не совпадает в русском и английском языках. Например: industry промышленность, industries промышленность, отрасли промышленности; policy политика, политический курс, policies политика, политический курс; atomic weapons (мн. ч.) атомное оружие (ед. ч.).
Переведите следующие предложения.
1. The heaviest blow that the atom bomb fanatics got, however, came with the dramatic announcement that the Russians also have got the bomb.
2. As they participate in the fight for dramatic reforms, large sections of the population come to realize the necessity of unity of action with the working class and become more active politically.
3. The Administration, of course, is loath to contemplate such a fundamental change in its foreign policy. The stakes are too high and American bonds with Europe too numerous to permit such a dramatic situation.
4. The Prime Minister's dramatic European move was timed to divert public attention from the more dismal news of Rhodesia and the freeze.
5. There is a popular tendency, among most newsmen and radio and TV commentators, to portray Congressmen as men who are working themselves to death, sweating and suffering heart attacks to serve the people.
6. He seems to have excluded himself from the vice-presidential candidacy at a time when the public opinion polls report that he is того, popular than both the President and the Vice-president.
7. The victory of the popular revolution in Cuba has become a splendid example for the peoples of Latin America.
8. The working class can defeat the reactionary, anti-popular forces, secure a firm majority in parliament and transform parliament from an instrument serving the class interests of the bourgeoisie into an instrument serving the working people.
9. This year the election falls on November 3. The outcome is generally known the next morning, though formally the balloting takes place in the Electoral College in early December.
10. If the talks make it clear that Britain is committed, the Government will be in a strong position if they decided to apply formally for membership next June.
11. The Prime-Minister will reply to the speeches on Monday, after informal talks last night, this evening and tomorrow with the Commonwealth Prime Ministers, who have been invited in three groups.
12. Soviet people believe that the example provided by the Soviet Union and other nations which are building socialism will convince the people that it is the system that offers the maximum opportunities to develop man's abilities.
13. The essence of the policy of the U. S. S. R. is peace everywhere, freedom and equality for all peoples, brotherhood and happiness for all nations.
14. This policy will ensure that successive currency crises do not affect the level of economic activity and overall welfare of the nation.
15. The meeting expressed the hope that the remaining points of differences would be settled when the conference on the cessation of nuclear tests is resumed in Geneva.
16. The main item on the agenda, and one over which most differences exist, was the proposed nuclear non-proliferation treaty.
17. A conspiracy is being brewed in Wall Street and Washington to deny the people any choice in the Presidential elections. The tactic is to suppress the issues and blur any differences between the Republican and Democratic candidates.
18. A general strike is one which affects an entire industry, an entire locality or a whole country.
19. Disarmament will release for civilian employment millions of people now serving in the armed forces and war industries.
20. This fact is recognition of the weight and power of public opinion, of its growing influence on international developments.
21. "Generally speaking," says the Survey, "developments last year were distinctly less encouraging than was expected."
22. Such development would emphasize the region's economic importance and growth potential which would reflected in its population growth, housing and overspill problems.
23. The Prime Minister said that the Government was prepared to set up publicly owned enterprises in the development areas.
24. Whereas, before 1914, only professional diplomats were entrusted with international negotiations, a new development began to take place: the appearance of statesmen on the scene, and the creation of a number of permanent international bodies composed of delegates, most of whom were not in the diplomatic service of their country.
25. Already very many sections of the Labor, trade union and cooperative movements support policies on these lines. Their members number millions.
26. To get the kind of Budget the country needs means a fight for a different policy within the Labor movement.
27. The local elections give an opportunity to press for such a policy especially by voting for the Communist candidates who are putting it forward.
28. The differing agricultural policies of the Six22 and the Seven23 and the question of supranational authorities in Europe were two other obstacles which the former Foreign Secretary mentioned in Parliament on July 25.
ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ ДЛЯ ПЕРЕВОДА НА СМЕШАННЫЕ ТРУДНОСТИ
I. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на перевод неличных форм глагола и их функцию.
1. One person in ten can expect to be seriously injured or killed in a road accident during their lifetime, according to Prof. W. G., director of the Road Injuries Research Group at the Birmingham Accident Hospital, in a report issued today. The report is concerned with ways of reducing the 24,000 deaths in Britain each year of men and women below the age of 45. It concentrates on accidents, cancer, heart disease and suicide, which between them cause three quarters of these young adult deaths. In a foreword, Mr G. Т., director, Office of Health Economics, suggests that 6,000 to 7,000 young lives could be saved each year if attention was concentrated on preventing the four main causes of premature death.
2. The Geneva conference having failed to secure an agreement, there was no way of telling what the outcome will be.
3. After months of talks and Cabinet discussions, the Government has told us what power it intends to hold over pay negotiations in the future, after "severe restraint" has ended. Part II of the Price and Incomes Act is to be "activated", to follow the period of "severe restraint" due to end in a few months time. Increases in both incomes and prices are to be vetted through "early-warning measures". As far as prices are concerned the system (here: the Price and Incomes Act) is supposed to concentrate on those of economic significance, especially those affecting the cost of living. Part II enforces the notification of wage claims, by either the employer or the union, within seven days of their being lodged. Notification has to be made to the appropriate Government Minister.
4. "The only alternative to letting the British Motor Corporation company close and a thousand people become redundant, was for the Government to take over responsibility," said the Minister of Aviation repudiating Tory charges that the Government was responsible for the failure of private enterprise in this field.
5. Far from steering a middle course, or a modern course, or making changes, or bringing Socialist aims up to date, as in turn he claimed, he is operating a Tory-Right Wing Labor mixture of policies as old-fashioned as top hats on Palace coachmen, but not nearly as harmless or funny. The Prime Minister said that the July measures, "so far from threatening the nation with continuing unemployment, by creating the opportunity for a new break-through in exports and production, hold out the surest guarantee we have of full employment for a generation."
6. Far from being a vote-winner, the Budget seems to have driven a bigger proportion of voters than ever to turn away from the Tories at the Derby North by-election.
7. A struggle for conscience began in America in the days of Tom Paine and the American Revolution. It started in England with the Puritans and other protestant sects fighting the persecution of the State and its State religion.
8. Even with the pendulum of power swinging back to the Security Council, as it is doing at present, the Assembly will retain considerable political influence, provided its Afro-Asian majority continues to show a sense of responsibility.
9. Having refused to recognize this in time, Washington was forced to retreat, under the pressure of rather embarrassing circumstances, from the juridical sound but politically unrealistic position it had enjoined on the United States delegation to the U.N.
10. "Our Government is taking a huge gamble in going into the Common Market in the belief that a single integrated large industrial area represents the best outlet for our products. This strategy is obviously very risky. Instead of going after the maximum amount of international trade, we are tying ourselves to a tight restrictive group fiercely competing among each other for vital markets in North America."
11. With no party having an over-all majority, and the political stalemate renewed, the three possible coalitions are: Christian Democrats with Free Democrats; Social Democrats with Free Democrats; and last, but by no means least likely, a continuation of the 'Grand Coalition' between the Christian Democrats and the Social Democrats.
II. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на перевод страдательного залога и сослагательного наклонения.
1. While Trades Union Congress leaders were being pressed yesterday at Downing Street to agree to wage freezing, Stock Exchange speculators were pushing share prices to a new record level.
2. This report - the first of which will appear next autumn,- would give the T.U.C. views on the general level of pay increases in the following years. Claims notified to the General Council by unions would be in accordance with it. Discussions with the Department of Economic Affairs and the Confederation of British Industry would take place before the drawing up of the report.
3. Tomorrow night's meeting of the Parliamentary Labor Party, when the Prime Minister will wind up the discussions on the Market, will conclude his formality of consulting backbenchers about a decision he has already made in principle. His speech to MPs is to be published immediately after it is made, which is thought to be a further indication of his efforts to guide opinion the way he wants. Anti-Market MPs hope that the speech Mr E.S. will make will also get similar facilities and be published in full. Most MPs would be surprised if the Cabinet should fail to endorse the Prime Minister's known desire to ask for negotiations on the transitional arrangements needed during the period of Britain's adjustment to Common Market laws and practice.
4. Behind this action lies an admission of, and a determination to solve, the real problem of every weatherman - that meteorologists actually know frighteningly little about the weather. "If a scientist in any other field made predictions based on so little basic information," the head of the United States Weather Bureau's international unit remarked recently "he'd be flatly out of his mind." And if chemistry were now at the same stage as meteorology, a colleague added, the world would just be beginning to worry about the horrifying effect of gunpowder in warfare.
5. The repercussions in Nigeria, should he carry out his threat to resign, might be even more serious. In September a conference is due to be held in London at which representatives from all parts of Nigeria will be present.
6. If the British Government were to declare that the M.L.F. should be abandoned and make a call for practical steps of disarmament it would find a big response here.
7. Both countries have an interest in avoiding such an extention of the area of conflict because of the threatening consequences, were the localization to fail.
8. A heavy expenditure on atomic development for peaceful purposes, if controlled by the people, would ultimately pay handsome dividends.
9. The decision that there should be no broadcast on matters which were about to be debated in Parliament was originally neither negotiated nor bargained for.
10. An undertaking by non-nuclear states not to acquire nor manufacture nuclear weapons would be an important step. The guarantee through the U. N. should safeguard against threats by countries embarking on a nuclear weapons capability, as well as those which already had that capability, the Indian delegate said.
11. That the decision of the steering committee should have been overruled by the narrow margin of one vote only points to the necessity of continuing the debates.
12. "Of the 550,000 people who die each year, at least 100,000 die of conditions that can now be prevented or whose destructive powers can be diminished or postponed." Dr W. illustrated his point with the case of the Rhondda, where the health facilities "are quite inadequate." Of the 1,380 people who died there in 1965, 388 would have survived if the death rate had been as low as in the rest of England and Wales.
13. Mr H. suggested that the Lord Chancellor should help the Smith regime make sense of the proposals for setting up an interim Government which it had not been able to accept. He said it was "a mark of bankruptcy of statesmanship" to come to the point where mandatory sanctions had to be used - a remark which -brought murmurs from the Labor benches. He asked the Prime Minister for a categorical undertaking that if oil sanctions were proposed particularly against South Africa, the British Government would use its veto. This brought cries of "no" from a number of Labor back-benchers.
14. Women demanding equal pay should press home their campaign. For the P.I.B.'s proposal that nationalized industry chiefs should get the same as the heads of the firms with similar responsibilities is, after all, only another way of saying that pay should be equal for work of equal value.
III. Переведите следующие предложения, постарайтесь точно передать значение модальных глаголов.
1. But while workers, whatever they may think of film and pop stars salaries can't do much about it, they can use their strength to win higher wages for themselves, at the expense of the huge profits made by the employers. This is what the unions were created for, and what their members expect them to do.
2. Trade unionists who might have been tempted into the Tory camp by Mr H.'s claim to be their best friend should have a look at what another Tory leader said yesterday. The Tory Shadow Minister of Labor made it quite clear that he would use the law against the unions with quite as much relish as the present Government. By letting it be known that they will vote against the compulsory powers in Part IV of the Price and Incomes Act, the Tories are trying to pose as the defenders of trade union freedom.
3. The chairman of a firm of timber importers, gently chided his fellow-industrialists. He reminded them that some of the presidents of the larger Soviet trade corporations had told him that orders which might have been placed in Britain had not been because either British exporters were unable to quote or were uncompetitive.
4. The Prime Minister's famous victory last week against the rebels within his own party was surely cheaply won. His own performance may have been - indeed, must have been - more effective to listen to than to read later, for despite the fact that it was a speech for all seasons, containing something for everybody involved in the east-of-Suez dispute, it left unanswered or inadequately answered so many questions about Britain's future role in the world and how it is to be fulfilled, that the great debate is very far from conclusion. For all his political skill, the Prime Minister has only written another chapter, he has not closed the book.
5. Some excuse for the behavior of Tory chieftains might be provided if it could be shown that the leadership battle revolved round central issues of public importance. But throughout the dispute has been concerned with personalities and patronage-gang warfare in all its sterility.
6. Many past air crashes, as subsequent investigation has shown, could have been avoided. There are many points about the Innsbruck flight which need an answer. Perhaps the answers to these questions will be satisfactory. In this case every possible step may have been taken that could have been taken, and it may be shown that only a human error that could not have been foreseen caused the crash.
7. The Administration, which has been on its best behavior throughout the summer in not pressing Britain to reach an early decision on the multilateral nuclear force, is now making it plain that it would welcome an immediate answer. Serious discussions are to begin next month with West Germany, Italy and others, and if Britain is not to miss the boat she must be ready to take part.
8. A threat to underdeveloped countries that they must pursue policies pleasing to the U. S. if they want financial aid was made in Washington yesterday by the U. S. Undersecretary of State. "If a country is to be able to achieve self-sustaining growth within a reasonable future," he told the annual meeting of the World Bank, "it will have to pursue realistic policies to acquire the capital it needs."
9. Our view is that if Britain and the Europeans are to achieve a constructive influence in African affairs, it can be done only through the medium of the United Nations. That is the only forum in which the old colonial powers, the newly liberated nations, the Soviet Union and the United States can meet and deal with one another in the context of the law of the Charter.
10. Prospects of more election broadcasts for the Communist party could be improved as a result of recommendations in a report from the Speaker's Conference on Electoral Law, issued yesterday. But these are recommendations and pressure will have to be maintained if they are to be transformed into decisions. Claiming that existing arrangements for allocating time at General Elections "are broadly satisfactory," the report suggests: "The broadcasting authorities should review the arrangements made for broadcasts at election times by minor parties."
IV. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на перевод многозначных слов.
1. Whether it would be possible to negotiate arrangements to cover each case no one can say. But the chances are likely to be better with Britain a member of this organization.
2. Everywhere one travels in Africa, whether in the remaining colonial territories or in the newly independent states, one cannot help being struck by the signs on every hand of the disastrous effects of the colonial system.
3. That resolution is similar to one defeated by a 47-vote a year ago and is expected to be defeated by a wider margin this year.
4. In the case of the Union of Post Office workers a member could be excluded from membership for up to twelve months since there was no provision for any stay pending appeal to annual conference.
5. The company is reluctant to consider the workers' demand for wage increase. What seems to be the case is that it wants to prevent any drastic steps being taken to interfere with their profit making activity.
6. The fact is that local industrialists were invited to become members of the board when it was set up, and it must have been obvious that they would not only be concerned with local development, but in some cases be personally involved.
7. Complicated legal issues which have arisen are being studied by the Attorney General's department which believes there is a case for damages against the tanker's owners.
8. Yet for large and small nations, their record in the General Assembly does provide a yardstick with which to measure the application of their publicly announced foreign policy.
9. Mr H. is the only serious rival at present, and if politics was a science, he would be a formidable rival. He has a splendid record as a reform mayor and a courageous Senator.
10. Mr N. had been under fire from many sections of the student community for allegedly being out of touch with the problems of ordinary students, and his speech tonight was being regarded as a make or break bid to win back popular support for executive policy.
11. The biggest problem, however, is likely to be on the wage front. How cooperative will the unions be this summer as their demands culminate? A strong point is that the Chancellor of the Exchequer can now have as full scale and thorough a Budget as he thinks necessary.
12. The tourist potential is as yet largely untapped. But every effort is being made to develop the industry into a major foreign exchange earner. Apart from the existing facilities, the National Development Corporation is embarking upon a major program for tourist accommodation facilities.
13. Mr P. says that only the pro-Market case has been put by the "giant combines that now control the British Press," and that as a result many Six opponents have been brainwashed into a false sense of loneliness.
V. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. But far from unemployment being temporary, the Minister himself has told us emphatically that the Government's policy of restraining wages, which is causing unemployment, is to go on - not for 12 months, but indefinitely.
2. Trade unionists do not find this logic difficult to accept. But they are not so equally convinced that a fair answer will be found in a largely privately owned economy; and that under these conditions the burden of restraint will, in fact, fall fairly on wage-earners and the recipients of dividends.
3. In order to get the Trades Union Congress to accept the latest proposals on wage restraint made by the General Council the delegates are being told that unless they agree to them the alternative is legislation. This is like telling a man that unless he cuts his throat you will shoot him. Either way he hasn't much to look forward to.
4. The Chancellor of the Exchequer impressed on the House that all that was needed was that everyone should behave sensibly and realize that if the country threw away this opportunity it might be long before it got another anything like so favorable. Stable prices could be assured only by price reductions in the field where progress was fastest and If the benefits of progress for which the whole community was responsible were shared by the whole community.
5. The Prime Minister's speech in New York is widely accepted in Continental European financial quarters as a convincing political assurance that he does not plan any devaluation, but there are doubts whether he can successfully defend the pound while also insisting on maintaining economic growth and full employment in Britain. It is conceded that the Labor Government is likely to succeed in balancing Britain's capital account by the end of next year by restricting capital outflow, but it is stressed that it is-not the capital account but the trade account which matters.
6. This system makes a mockery of democracy. The more the "freedom" of these people is interfered with, the more freedom is extended for the majority. The more their right to make profits is limited, the more the rest of the community will benefit.
7. That view will gain ground because a new shock awaits the Parliamentary Labor Party and the Labor movement. The Prime Minister appears to have won the case, and carefully calculated leaks are coming from Cabinet Ministers to prepare us all for yet one more reversal of policy.
8. It is not the critics of the Minister of Economy who are cynical. That is a word which could be more accurately applied to a Minister who says he is for prices being kept down, and then supports a Budget which puts them up.
9. If British economic commitments and promises are to be fulfilled and the presence of a new Minister for Overseas Development in the Cabinet means what the Prime Minister seemed to imply it meant on Monday evening, the aid program is unlikely to be pruned much, if at all.
10. If the staff at Labor Party headquarters get the 121/2 per cent pay rise which it is reported they are to be offered, or the bigger increase they may ask for, they will no doubt congratulate themselves not only on their own efforts, but on having employers prepared to stand up to the Government and defy the pay freeze.
11. And even more important than an inquiry into the past is the fight to change future policy. What we should be concerned with is not to prevent "excessive profits" being made out of war preparations, but to prevent any profit being made at all, by ending the waste on arms.
12. Before this was voted on the vice-chairman of the shop stewards committee suggested that, because of the attitude shown by the company they should demand that the original date be adhered to with the full time union officials being brought into consultations on the sacking issue. Had he been able to put this case through the microphone it is certain to have had wide support, but few heard him and the chairman put the original recommendation, which was carried. A shop steward said after the meeting: "I was amazed that a recommendation endorsed by over 100 leading shop stewards of our union last night was not put to the meeting. I feel that had this been explained and the vice-chairman been able to speak on his suggestion, then there would have been a very different decision today. They would have rejected redundancy and insisted on further negotiations."
13. The argument about whether the motor companies should release workers to the rest of the labor market rather than put them on short time reveals once again the great divide between economic ideas in the abstract and the way the British economy works at present.
14. The big question in industry today is security of employment. As redundancy and short-time working spread throughout the car industry and the many industries wholly or largely dependent upon it, as the same process operates in the other sections producing consumer durable goods of all kinds, like furniture and refrigerators, and as the program of pit closures gets under way, workers everywhere must be worried about their own jobs even if they are not in one of the immediately hard-hit industries.
15. It is a thorough disgrace that a Labor council should be acting in this way. A Labor council should set an example as a model landlord, not as peacemaker for the avaricious, grasping private landlords. The reason for the increase in rents is the usual one - the council is in the red on its housing account. But that is not the fault of the tenants. It is the fault of the Government which has failed to keep its election manifesto promise to "introduce a policy of lower interest rates for housing." It is also the fault of the council for not insisting that the Government honors its pledge. Instead of an increase in rents, the council should insist that interest on housing loans should be cut. This is something the Government could do instead of slinging money down the drain keeping troops in West Germany, Aden or Singapore. Apart from the gross injustice of the extortionate demands, rent increases are a very bad electoral advertisement for Labor. So let us wish the tenants every success in their struggle against boneheaded bureaucrats in the Town Hall.
16. It was he who with the Prime Minister turned the scales against having a snap election in November without making even the pretence of coping with the dollar crisis. It was he who threw his weight in favor of February as the best moment to send the Labor machine into action; and it is he who will profit most among the party's leaders if Labor wins.
17. An early general election, which last week would have seemed bound to introduce a score of irrelevant issues at this time of pressing national anxiety, is now the only way of ending the confusion caused by what Mr N. termed the Government's decision "to aggravate and inflame political and party strife, not by words only - we all use words in party politics - but by deeds." To this all-important side of the question Mr M. made only passing references.
18. A call for continuous pressure on the Government to act before more newspapers are forced to close down was made by Mr M., Labor MP for Ashfield, at the end of the Press teach-in in London on Wednesday evening. Summing up the entire teach-in, Mr M. said a lot of different proposals had been put forward during the3V2-hour discussion. But he believed that most would agree that some form of Government intervention was necessary. "The only way we can get the Government to see the urgency of the problem is for the Labor and progressive movement generally to keep up a continuous pressure on the Government to act, and to act now before there are more closures." Nearly 1,000 people met for the Press teach-in sponsored jointly by the Sunday Citizen, Tribune and the Morning Star, and held at Camden Town Hall. Almost all were convinced of the need for Government intervention to save the Press from being at the mercy of the highest bidders, men whose concern was not for democracy but only for money-making.
19. In his speech to newspaper editors yesterday the Paymaster General named monopoly and big commercial advertisers as a threat to Press freedom and democracy. But having revealed many of the things that were wrong, unfortunately he did not assist us by making proposals which would help to put things right. How amazing that he did not mention that the Government, of which he is a member, had given the death blow to the Sunday Citizen, by refusing to give that cooperatively owned newspaper the advertising aid it asked for. Yet by refusing to aid the Citizen and stop Lord T. swallowing The Times, the Government itself has helped the "process of concentration and monopoly" which, the Paymaster General said yesterday, he regarded as a danger not only to Press freedom, but to democracy itself. By giving the Press tycoons all this advertising, and depriving the independent Morning Star of a fair share, the Government is helping to increase the danger to democracy. Having lectured the newspaper editors, the Paymaster General ought now to lecture the Cabinet on its public duty to provide the Morning Star and Tribune, the last remaining papers of the Left, with more Government advertisements. In the long run, however, the future of the Morning Star depends on its readers. It is to them that we always appeal, as we do again, to champion the cause of Press independence by winning new readers of this newspaper, and new contributors to its Fund.
20. The National Coal Board chairman was criticized at the Aberfan Inquiry yesterday after he had said that safety precautions for looking after tips were inadequate before the disaster. The Coal Board chairman told the inquiry that he did not think there was any doubt that had new techniques on tip safety been taken advantage of, there was a high probability that they would not have been at the tribunal yesterday. The inquiry chairman said, "Had we realized that it was quite possible to know by the use of available measures that this disaster was impending and preventable, the Coal Board chairman would have been asked weeks ago to make a statement to the Treasury solicitor and weeks and months of this inquiry would have been rendered unnecessary."
21. It is time it was understood that history does not develop according to the formulae of those who would like to conserve it, those who would like to arrest the movement of the people along the road of progress.
22. The Foreign Secretary is reported to be annoyed because the Americans didn't consult him about their decision to go ahead with an anti-ballistic missile system. But this is typical of the U. S. Government's attitude to Britain, and he ought to be used to it by now. The Foreign Secretary would be in a stronger position to complain if his own nuclear policy were any more sensible or any less dangerous than America's.
23. But the text of the communique which is likely to be agreed at another restricted session of the 22 delegations at Marlborough House this morning is expected to be mainly a record of disagreements - with Britain's view shown to be a minority one in the conference.
24. The Prime Minister has done the right thing in ending speculation about a summer election. He had pretty well forced an announcement on himself. Irritating the Labor party with his cat-and-mouse tactics did not matter; the fact that he was teasing the public as well did. The announcement is also timed. To have made it earlier might have taken any zest there was out of the local government elections; to have made it later would have invited the charge that the Prime Minister had been influenced by their results. The new Cabinet shows significant changes, both personal and constructional, from the old one. Naturally it will be looked at most searchingly in the Ministries which touch the home front, and particularly its economics. It was the failure either to coordinate these Ministries successfully, or to present an intelligible picture of their activities to the electorate, which was the chief weakness of the previous Cabinet. The Prime Minister's own record is here at its most untried. He will have to show that his capacity for government is sufficiently unspecialized to make him as successful on the home front as he has been on the overseas.
25. Geneva, Tuesday. The broadening of trade with the Socialist countries was advocated here today by the Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on trade and development. He told the Conference that there was a "great potential" in the Socialist lands because of their high rate of economic growth. For the time being, he said, trade with the Socialist countries would have to be within a framework of bilateral accords, but he hoped that by degrees conditions would be created "growing from bilateralism to multilateralism."
26. The approach to the Common Market will be accompanied by intensive efforts within E.F.T.A. to improve and strengthen the association and, incidentally, to make it a more powerful bargaining platform. The British Premier who opened the discussion is understood to have told his visitors that British membership of the Common Market is "many years ahead" but that it was time for the E.F.T.A. countries to get together to consider a joint policy. With representatives present from five of the other E.F.T.A. Governments and three Common Market Governments, the occasion could hardly have been more suitable for launching the theme. In any event, everyone seems to have been pleasantly surprised by the friendliness of the discussions and the wide range of agreement that was reached. The participants of the conference seemed to have stressed the dangers that could ensue from two European groups each with internal Customs freedom but separated by a high tariff barrier. An arrangement under which the Six could be treated as one economic unit which might enter into relations with E. F. T. A. to give a wider free trade group is also to be explored. The leader of the Canadian New Democratic Party put the Commonwealth viewpoint forcefully at the meeting and earned the British Premier's assurance that Britain could not join a European trade block that was committed to an agricultural policy like that of the Common Market.
27. The Foreign Minister of West Germany is understood to have emphasized that his proposals for political union were not intended to exclude Britain from the talks; but there were many difficulties, he pointed out, to be overcome by the Six before they could see clearly which way they were heading. There was no point in bringing in Britain before they had reached that stage.
28. The real need is for the Western powers to maintain their basic objectives, but to be more supple in applying them in the search for unity, and the beginning should be in a recognition that unity is more likely to come in a relaxation of general European tension. Complete rigidity is in danger of defeating the ends it has in view.
29. History will one day record that there has never been in the U. S. a group or organization which has been lied about, vilified, persecuted as has been the Communist Party. Some day when the truth gets a hearing, the historian will pick up his pen and record that no finer contribution has been made to the cause of freedom in general and Negro freedom in particular than that made by the American Communist Party.
30. Today the Soviet Union has emerged as the main force, generating enough power to give to peoples of colour the world over the confidence that they could shake off the shackles of world imperialism. Were it not for Soviet power offering an alternative to capitalism and imperialism it is doubtful that over one and a half billion people would have been able to free themselves from colonialism and imperialism.
31. The Negro revolt has many causes, but its basic power is that of the force of economic wretchedness. It is this wretchedness that technological change is threatening to exacerbate beyond endurance by automating out of existence many of the unskilled and skilled jobs Negroes hold. That the Negro community is in the throes of profound economic crisis is evident from the unemployment figures.
32. It used to be said of the American Negro that he was "poor before he was black", that he would vote the Democratic ticket, in spite of the Southern Democrat's support of racial segregation, because the Democratic party was the party of the New Deal.
33. Next to the life-and-death issues of nuclear war, racial prejudice is perhaps the greatest single problem in the modern world; and although it is true that the solutions are not simple, the moral issue underlying it is simplicity itself. Such an appeal would seek to confront racial prejudice head-on: possibly by pointing to the rich and varied contributions which past waves of immigrants have made to national life, even more by laying bare the fundamental inhumanity on which racial prejudice is based. Conceivably, this might lose votes. Even so, it would itself help to change the moral climate.
34. Every struggle for human rights takes on a different aspect, even though the fundamental facts remain the same, whether it be struggle for free speech in the streets or on the campuses, or fight for social justice everywhere. "The silent generation" now speaking again, as youth should, freely and independently, are facing all the slanders repeated by the baffled reactionaries unable to abide the fact that the young people have principles which they are willing to fight for.
35. This polarization of forces is ominous. The dominant issue having been what it was, the tension in race relations, already severe, is now most unlikely to be relaxed.
36. It will take 270 electoral votes to win the presidential race, with the heavily-populated States, with their big blocks of votes, the key ones.
37. When the pound was devalued the British people were assured that unpleasant though this medicine might be, it would mark the turning of the tide. Now, two days after the first anniversary of devaluation the Chancellor of the Exchequer has to fly off to Bonn after midnight discussions in Whitehall because there is a new monetary crisis. Last March the dollar was almost devalued. Now it is the franc which is in the front line. If either of these two currencies were to fall, the pound would almost certainly have to be devalued again.
38. The real reason for British capitalism's desperation to enter the Common Market is its desire to pave the way for the next stage in the development of the super trusts.
39. What was this statement designed to achieve? There seems to have been nothing in it that would lead one to conclude that the General wished to frighten the British Government into abandoning its siege of the Common Market. Certainly, he must have realized by now that it is not the kind to be frightened off its chosen objective. The only convincing supposition is that the meeting was designed, however indirectly, as a warning.
40. If the meeting of the Council of Ministers in Luxembourg should reveal a strong consensus of opinion among France's five Common Market partners in favor of negotiations, then the French Government will have little alternative. What is most likely to happen is that it will attempt to gain time, and put forward every conceivable argument to cause delay.
41. It is not the Ford strike which is at the root of the trouble for it had not started during the period covered by these figures. It is not the workers who last year produced a balance of payment deficit of ?458 million. It was not the workers who sent over ?620 million for investment abroad last year instead of investing it in industry in Britain.'
42. Although military aviation can be said to have started in 1870 when balloons were used during the siege of Paris, it was not until the first world war that it became of substantial importance.
43. The real talks begin tomorrow. The seriousness of the two opening statements has rather lightened the atmosphere. Now there are some hopes that there could be a tacit understanding, rather than a formal freeze, on M.I.T.V.s24 weapons. Nevertheless the two statements did touch in dilute and tactful fashion on the basic differences in the U. S. and Soviet Union approaches which will have to be reconciled if there is to be progress.
44. It may be unprecedented, but it is not illogical for the Chancellor of the Exchequer to have used his Budget speech for announcing the Government's intention of hustling through Parliament an Act designed to shackle the trades unions. The Budget, like the preceding ones of this Government, has as its main objective to devalue our wage packets. The decision to rush through the anti-T.U. legislation is aimed at disarming the working people, and hampering them in their struggle to retain the real value of their hard-earned wage packets. It is a policy aimed at ensuring that any increase in either productivity or output should lead not to more wages, but to more profit... There can be no other explanation for the Chancellor's moan that increased production and productivity rose only four times as much as wages.
45. The Congressman was deprived of his scat last month by vote of the House pending investigations by the special committee on the grounds that he had put taxpayers' money to his own use, flouted the law by refusing to pay libel damages, and evaded jail sentences imposed for contempt of court.
46. This political chicane exposed the U. S. administration fleeing at high speed from the showdown it inwardly shrinks from but for months has been outwardly "demanding."
47. The Brazilian Foreign Minister made a far-reaching proposal: since a peace-keeping operation was not foreseen in writing the Charter, a new chapter authorizing and regulating such operations should be introduced between Chapter VI, which deals with the pacific settlement of disputes, and Chapter VII, which authorizes the employ of force by member states.
48. Most of the African states have only been in existence a couple of years. One cannot therefore expect to see as yet, any decisive change in the pattern of the economy in these countries. The change from an underdeveloped country to a developed one is a huge task.
49. If one examines the various African territories, both those still under direct colonial rule and those which have recently won their political independence, one finds that despite local differences, there is a certain essential similarity in character of their economics.
50. When we remember that when the United Nations was founded there were only three African states - one of them being the Union of South Africa, governed then as now not by the masses of the people but by an imperialistic minority; when we recall that in 1960 alone no less than 16 of those states gained their formal political independence, we gain some idea of the pace and extent of change in the African continent.
51. If the capital needs of underdeveloped countries are particularly heavy, one must recognize that their absorptive capacity, on the other hand, remains more limited than was the case of Europe in the nineteenth century.
52. There were 540 road accidents on Tuesday, and 22 people were killed, bringing the death toll for the five days of Christmas to 158. This is 82 more than for the four-day Christmas period of last year, and 50 more than the provisional figure at the end of the five-day Christmas of 1964. One of the worst features of this year's accident figures is that while the total number of road accidents is down on last year (2,856 compared with 2,963 for the four days from Friday midnight), the number of dead and injured is up. "The holiday figures show how urgently we need the Road Safety Bill," the Minister of Transport said yesterday.
53. Even the restrained Mr В., not a man given to talking in headlines, proclaimed himself as "almost appalled" at the inadequacies of one important aspect of mental care - the in-patient accommodation for seriously maladjusted children. The regional hospital boards gave this such a low priority that some of the children have to go into adult wards. It looked as though such specialized services always stay at the bottom of the priority lists, and Mr B. wanted the boards to equip themselves on a group basis. "How these nurses and attendants conduct their duties and look after the patients is an unparalleled task, and one you would not conceive humanly possible for them to do as well as they do." "If we are to secure a greater public understanding of the problem we have to restore also the confidence which the public are entitled to feel that in these special hospitals, no matter how far medical science advances, security is, and is seen to be, the primary responsibility of those in charge."
54. Although some smaller details can be glimpsed visually in exceptionally good conditions, pictures of Mars obtained by space probes from about 5,000 miles, and away from the atmosphere of the earth, are likely to be a revelation. A new era in planetary investigation has begun. There seems good reason to anticipate reproductions of the Martian surface which are likely to answer the controversial and important question of whether the straightish markings, the so-called canals, are natural or artificial formations. Even if these probes should fail, it cannot be very long before our knowledge of the Martian surface will be transformed as a result of space techniques.
55. The United States is clearly committed to a policy of development of outer space for peaceful purposes with the widest possible dissemination of the fruits of that effort. But if development is to proceed under a rule of law rather than a rule of might, all nations must agree upon and accept international rules of behaviour governing space activities.
КЛЮЧ К ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯМ ДЛЯ ПЕРЕВОДА
§ 1. Инфинитив
Стр. 10. Инфинитив в различных функциях
1. ... которая должна состояться ...; 2. ,.. предстоящие трудности ...; 4. ... и характера работы, которая должна будет (ими) выполняться; 8. ... планы по открытию ...; 9. ... семинар по обучению ...; 11. ... которое нужно было обеспечивать (продовольствием); 12. Можно сказать очень многое в пользу ... 13. ... о повышении заработной платы, чтобы скомпенсировать ... 14. ... которые делали бы обязательным применение других мер ... 15. ... чтобы оплатить расходы, связанные с осуществлением ...; 16. ... конференции для обсуждения ...; 17. ... с тем, чтобы дать возможность ...; 18. ... надеются расширить ...; 19. ... не замедлил предупредить нас ...; 22. ... он огорчен, что его не пригласили ...; 23. ... чтобы их можно было без опасения возродить. 25. ... и стала второй ...; 28. ... неизбежно скажется на ...; 32. Тот факт, что Америка не выступила с открытым заверением ...; 33. ... из-за того, что шестерка (шесть членов Общего рынка) не смогла договориться по поводу ...; 34. Так как Женевская конференция не привела к ...; 38. ... не говоря уже о средних и малых ...; 39. Начать с того, что ... (Прежде всего ...); 40, Рассмотрим для начала ...
Стр, 17. Инфинитивные конструкции
1. Ожидали, что космонавты приземлятся ...; 6. ... которые, как предполагают, составят ,..; 8. ... по всей вероятности достигнет .,.; 11. ... непохоже на то, что ... произойдут изменения (будут произведены реформы) ...; 12. ... им, по-видимому, придется разочароваться; 15. Еще менее вероятно, что правительство это сделает ...; 16. ... которые, по всей вероятности, встанут на путь ... 19. Сообщается, что министр обеспокоен ...; 20. ... которая, как сообщают, назвала ...; 25. ... по-видимому, было успешным; 27. ... по-видимому, стало менее значительным (резким) ...; 30. ... кажется, вновь стали актуальными (вновь приобрели актуальность) ...; 33. Хотя и полагают (и считается), что некоторые (кое-кто из) ... одобряют ...; 34 ... но полагают, что это явилось следствием ...; 43. Можно сказать, что Киото был ...; 44. ... который, как утверждают, пытался ...; 46. Предполагалось, что они поступят ...; 48. ... во время которой, как опасаются ...; 49. Теперь стало ясно видно, что ...; 51. ... он слышал, как представитель ...сказал ...; 53. ...что он рассчитывает, что другие делегации поддержат ...; 54. ... заявила, что применение ... является ...; 55. ...хочет, чтобы дело шести рабочих разбиралось ...; 62. ... чтобы заставить профсоюзы согласиться ...; 65. ... о созыве конференции ... для обсуждения вопроса о коллективной безопасности ... ...(том, чтобы была созвана) ...; 67. ... чтобы чрезвычайная сессия ...созывалась ...; 75. ... чтобы среди членов профсоюза могло воцариться чувство самоуспокоения (чтобы ... могли чувствовать себя удовлетворенными).
§ 2. Герундий
Стр. 27. Герундий в различных функциях
1. Сделав свое заявление ...; 2. ... после того, как им сообщили ...; б. Провозглашая ...; 6. ... тем, что они согласились (когда они согласились) ...; 9. Благодаря тому, что они не потеряли из вида (что они все время помнили о) ...; 10. ... отказываясь дать (тем, что они отказывались дать) ...; 11. ... успешным проведением (если мы успешно проведем) ...; 16. ... даже не пользуясь привилегией (причем они даже не пользовались) ...; 18. Вместо того, чтобы изменить ...; 20.... самым лучшим способом предоставления (предоставить) ... возможности решить ...; 24. ... причины для выступления против (почему они выступают против) ...; 35. Восстановление (восстановить) ...; 39. Вместо того, чтобы сделать (предпринять) ...; 42. Отнюдь не оспаривая ...; 46. ... число далеко не соответствует
Стр. 32. Герундиальный комплекс
1. ... говорит о том, что такое соглашение невозможно; 2. ... к тому, что люди будут лишены (лишатся) ...; 3. ... что закрывается какая-либо (всякая) возможность ...; 4. ... при отсутствии возможности найти другую работу; 6. ... о том, что замораживание заработной платы идет на пользу ...; 8. ... вместо (какого-либо) повышения (не только не будет никакого повышения, но наоборот) ...; 10. ... того, что газетная промышленность подрывается ...; 17. Посылка туда еще большего количества войск (если туда будут отправлены) ...; 23. ... против того, чтобы честь получения этой (ученой) степени была предоставлена тому, кто ...
§ 3. Причастие
Стр. 38. Причастие в различных функциях
1. ... в котором приводятся ...; 5. Участвующие в (участники) ...; 6. ... во главе с ...; среди присутствующих (присутствовавших) ...; 7. ... которая приведет к ...; 8. ... выдвинутые (выдвигаемые) ...; 9. Открывая ...; 12. Отделавшись от ...; 13. Находясь под господством монополий ...; 14. ... что представляет собой увеличение ...; 15. Если учесть сложность этой проблемы, то ...; 16. В сочетании с ..-.; 18. ... на котором присутствовал ...; 22. ... согласованной (установленной) компенсации ...; 23. ... будучи проведены .в жизнь (если их осуществить) ...; 25. ... которая, когда ее бросают в огонь ...; 27. Когда его потом спросили ... (На вопрос о том ...); 29. Они хотели, чтобы ... было избрано ... (Им нужно было такое правительство .... которое было бы избрано) ...; 30. ... многие увидели, что их усилия оказались напрасными ...; 34. ... добиться ее подписания (того, чтобы ее подписали) ...; 38. ... скорее предпочтут, чтобы этой территорией завладел ...
Стр. 42. Абсолютная причастная конструкция
1. Так как внешняя политика Советского Союза основывается на ...; 6. ... причем обе стороны согласились ...; 8. ... делегаты стоя аплодировали ...; 11. ... и ее бюджет сейчас ...; 20. ... причем избиратели ... разделились ...
Стр. 44. Причастия в функции союзов и предлогов
1. ... при условии, что ...; 3. ... если предположить, что ... 6. Принимая во внимание, что ...; 7. ... если предположить, что... 8. ... учитывая, что ...; 9. ... после (вслед за) ...; 10. при наличии ...; 15. При отсутствии ...; 16. ... или, если это не удастся ... 18. ... что в ожидании ...; 22. учитывая ...
§ 4. Страдательный залог
1. ... сталь не выплавлялась ...; 3. ... будет обсуждаться ...; профсоюзам ... предлагается ...; 7. ... были ... отстранены от работы ... после того, как им было отказано в разрешении (не дали разрешения) ...; 11. ... когда разбирался вопрос о заработной плате; 12. ... подвергается ограничениям (испытывает ограничения) ...; 16. ... Против них надо выступать и добиваться их отмены. 17. ... чтобы от профсоюзов не требовалось ... и чтобы их затем не осуждали ...; 18. ... единственно, что можно сделать в отношении (что самым правильным ... будет) ...
§ 5. Сослагательное наклонение
1. ... каков был бы результат (что бы получилось), если бы округлили цены (в результате округления цен) ...; 2. если бы было объявлено об увольнениях в связи с сокращением ...; 4. ... и требовать, чтобы ... отложили ...; 11. ... что если бы рабочие не проявили ... то не было бы прибавки в ...; 14. ... если бы не 559 млн. фунтов ...; 16. ... Если бы не ограничения ...; 17. ... если бы его попытки ... почему-нибудь окончились неудачей. 18. По этой конституции будет установлена ... . Будет один список избирателей ... . Другой будет для ...; 19. В случае, если бы консерваторам удалось ...; 23. ... в случае, если бы таковые были ...; 24. ... о том, чтобы ... финансировались за счет ...; 27. Очень важно изучить (чтобы была изучена) ...; 30. ... предложение о том, чтобы ... составили подкомитет ...; 34. ... состояло в том, чтобы организовать лотерею ...; 37. ... чтобы безмятежное плавание не было потревожено бурей критики со стороны ,,.; 38. ... будь то ...
§ 6. Модальные и вспомогательные глаголы
Стр. 59. Глагол should
1. Должны быть разработаны мероприятия на длительный срок. 2. ... что следует учитывать ...; 3. не следует поддаваться ...; 4. ... к которому отнюдь не стоило прибегать (который совершенно напрасно было делать) ...; 6. Правительству не мешало бы созвать ...; 7, ... должна положить конец ...; 9. ... следовало бы соблюдать ...; 12. ... должны разрешаться ...; 13. Весьма примечательно ..., что люди ... выражают ...; 14. ... что это только вполне естественно, что людей волнует тот факт, что ...; 16. ... зачем же им нужно ждать ...; 17. Тот факт, что ... ставится перед ...; 19. Это, конечно, отнюдь не случайно, что министр воспользовался ...
Стр. 62. Глаголы can, may, mast
1. ... может удовлетворить только ...; 4. ... могли бы иметь место (последовать)...; 7. ... у ... премьера не могло быть никаких сомнений (премьер, несомненно, знал) ...; 11. ... может быть, придется сделать капиталовложения (инвестиции) ...; 13. ... что могло бы быть ...; 15. ... возможно, уже произойдут ...; 16. ... возможно (может быть),не стремился к тому, чтобы ...; 20. ... чем можно было бы представить ... Вполне может быть, что понадобится (потребуется) реквизиция ...; 21. ... которого, вполне вероятно, ожидают ...;23. ... вполне могло быть (вполне вероятно), что они ...; 26. ... должно быть (наверно), особенно сказалось на ...
Стр. 65. Глагол to be
1. ... является попытаться ,..; 2. ... должны начаться (начнутся) ...; 7. ... что банковская учетная ставка будет снижена (что предстоит снижение) ...; 9. ... должен был обсуждать (но не стал) ...; 12. ... если есть намерение (если мы хотим) сохранить ...; 13. ... если мы хотим, чтобы правление стало вновь пользоваться доверием и функционировать надлежащим образом.
Стр. 68. Глагол to have
1. ... приходится сокращать (пришлось сократить) ...; 2. ,.v которым сейчас приходится платить ...; 7. ... которые хотят (стремятся) привести к ликвидации тупика ...; 8. ... и добились того, что этот вопрос был внесен ...; 9. ... которая заставит (заставила бы) Ассамблею обратиться с призывом ,,,
Стр. 69. Глагол to do
1. Что все-таки обнаруживается в ...; 2. ... что эти агентства действительно успешно сотрудничают (работают вместе с) ...; 4. ... он все-таки сослался на (отметил) ...; 8. ... Если им это удастся ...; 9. (глагол to do здесь не переводится). 10. ... сделать это ...
§ 7. Сложноподчиненные предложения
1. Необходима организация ... (Организация...- вот что необходимо) ...; 7. Их намерения ,.. вот что стало совершенно ясным и не оставляет и тени сомнения (Что стало совершенно ясным ...- это их намерения). 8. Довольно сомнительно, удастся ли ...; 12, ... каковы условия вступления Англии в Общий рынок. 13. Используются и развиваются ли эффективно и полно ресурсы страны народом и для народа - вот что важно. 14. ... Это означает, что что-то неладно в самой системе ...; 15. ... Неясно только, достаточно ли быстрыми темпами идет улучшение. 16. Свобода, которой добиваются дирек-торы ...; 20. В послании Центрального Комитета Коммунистической партии говорится, что ...; 22. В опубликованном сегодня обзоре представляется возможность заглянуть ,,, (... дается возможность
бросить взгляд). 23. Все говорит о том, что стране нужен бюджет, в котором очень резко сокращены военные расходы и экспорт капитала.
§ 8. Четырехчленная каузативная конструкция
1. ... положившая начало тому возмущению, которое побудило его к деятельности (которое заставило его действовать). 2. ... уговорить одного человека отдать ...; 3. ... одурачить вас, заставить поверить, что ...; 6. ... подготовили ("обработали") общественность таким образом, что она поверила (к тому, чтобы она ...) ...; 8. Ни обманом, ни запугиванием их нельзя заставить пойти на ...
§ 9. Различные функции слов it, one, that
Стр. 81. It.
1. Это ...; Это ...; 2. (Слово it здесь не переводится.) 9. ... и именно по этой причине, мы ...; 10. Обеспечить ... может только сила (сплоченность) народов. 12. Никто другой, как (именно) Советский Союз ...; 18. ... не раньше (только после) 5 июня.
Стр. 83. One
1. ... в качестве одного из ...; 3. Когда слышишь ... нужно понять, что приходится сталкиваться ...; 5. ... препятствие ...; 10. (One здесь не переводится.) 11. ... тот, который ...
Стр. 85. That
1. что; 4. чтобы; 5. которые; 7. что; которая; 8. задача; 12. что; проблему; 14. что; темпа роста; 15. которые; которые; борьба; 16. над силами
§ 10. Эллиптические конструкции
1. ... какой доклад она представит ..., если она вообще его будет делать; 5. ... если и поступали какие-либо сведения ..., то их было очень мало; 6. Если что-нибудь и может помешать началу войны ...; 7. Во всяком случае ...; 8. Каковы бы ни были их усилия ...; 11. ... если не совсем невозможным ...; 12. ... хотя и более эффектный ...
§ 11. Препозитивные атрибутивные словосочетания
1. повышение зарплаты; 2. инспекционная комиссия; 3. прекращение работы в знак протеста; ночная смена; 4. владельцы машин; выпуск машин; рекордные прибыли; 5. работники (клерки), которые рассчитывают зарплату; 7. коллективная ответственность кабинета; 9. представитель министерства внутренних дел; 10. апрельское увеличение бюджета (увеличение апрельского бюджета); увеличение индекса розничных цен; 11. привилегии в отношении налогообложения; компании по страхованию жизни; 15. решение о проведении забастовки железнодорожных рабочих; 16. уведомление, сделанное Национальным управлением угольной промышленности об увольнении по сокращению штатов; 21. наземные синоптические посты наблюдения за погодой; 22. всемирный форум солидарности молодежи в Москве; 23. так называемый план Совета Большого Лондона, контролируемого консерваторами; 24. основной характер экономики - "пушки вместо масла" (основной характер экономики, в которой все направлено на вооружение в ущерб жизненному уровню); 25. статус наибольшего благоприятствования; 26. конференция Объединенных Наций по вопросам мировой торговли и развития, которая будет продолжаться три месяца; 29. три ракетных установки типа ""Блэк Эрроу" для запуска трехступенчатых спутников;
31. увеличение почтовых сборов, навязанное правительством; 33. план взимания подоходного налога в соответствии с заработком; 36. который по необходимости носит несколько лицемерный характер
§ 12. Многозначные слова
Стр. 97. Многозначные существительные
1. сверхдержавы; 2. державы; 3. полномочия; 5. власть; 7. министр энергетики; 8. способность; 9. равновесие сил; 10. мощь; 11. дело; 12. вопрос (случай); 15. случай; 16. доводы в пользу; 17. во всяком случае; 18. как это было; 19. но это не так; во всяком случае; 20. рекордная цифра; 21. репутация; 27. протокол; 28. характеристика (биография); 30. данные (факты); 31. документы (протоколы); 32. пластинка; 33. характерное явление; 34. система; 35. образцы (модели); 37. характер; 38. должность (пост); 42. управление; 43-власть; 44. возможности; 46. предприятия; 47. аппаратура; 48. приспособления; 49. условия; 51. общество; 52. Европейское Экономическое Сообщество; 53. деловые круги; 55. объединение; 56. сотрудничество; 57. население; 58. общность интересов
Стр. 104. Многозначные служебные слова.
1. поскольку, так как; 4. с, со времени; 8. с тех пор как, после того как; 9. в то время как; 12. (While здесь не переводится.) 14. пока; 15. ибо, так как; 17. в течение ... из-за; 18. по; 19. для; 21. впервые; 22. хотя и; 23. такой же ... как; 24. по мере того как; 25. в качестве, как; 26. в то время как; 27. за исключением, кроме; 29. не можем не...; 30. но; 31. если бы не ...; 34. только; 36. далеко не (совсем не) ...; 37. вполне, с успехом; 41. так же как; 43. значительно; 45. хорошо.
§ 13. Неологизмы
1. средство устрашения, сдерживающее средство; 7. столкновение, конфронтация; 14. оригинальное новшество; 16. разъединение, вывод войск; 20. посылка делегатов для оказания давления; 26. разрушить до основания; проводить политику, ставящую мир на грань войны; 27. быстро распространяться; 29. помещать на первой странице; 30. подвергать идеологической обработке; 31. сторонники расширения войны, сторонники мира; 32. битник; 33. битлзы 34. перевод рабочих в другую зону (переквалификация рабочих); 36. высаживаться из самолета; 37. диспут протеста; 38. демонстрация протеста с пением; 39. забастовка, когда рабочие остаются на заводе и не покидают его ночью; 40. утечка квалифицированных кадров; 41. лишение ядерного оружия.
§ 14. "Ложные друзья" переводчика
1. сенсационный (поразительный); 2. кардинальный; 3. трагический; 5. общий; 6. популярный; 7. народный; 9. официально; 12. страны, 14. народ; 15. разногласия; 18. промышленность; 19 отрасли промышленности; 20. события; 22. развитие; 23 районы, намеченные к освоению; 24. практика (тенденция); 25. политика, политический курс.
? См., например, В. Н. Комиссаров, Я. И. Рецкер, В. И. Тархов, "Пособие по переводу с английского языка на русский", ч. I, М" 1960, ч, II, М., 1965.
1 A. E. U.=Amalgamated Engineering Union Объединенный профсоюз машиностроителей
2 F.A.O.=Food and Agricultural Organization Продовольственная и сельскохозяйственная организация ООН (ФАО)
3 "Имя" употреблено здесь в грамматическом значении, т. е. имя существительное, местоимение или субстантивированное прилагательное.
4 N.S.C.=National Sporting Club
5 N.U.R.=National Union of Railwayman
6 T.U.C.=Trade Union Congress
7 E.E.C. = European Economic Community
? Субъектный причастный оборот аналогичен субъектному инфинитивному обороту и переводится так же. (См. раздел "Инфинитивные конструкции")
8 P.I.B. = Prices and Incomes Board
9 Comecon=the Council for Mutual Economic Aid (С. Э. B.)
10 T.U.C. = Trade Union Congress
11 N.U.R.=National Union of Railwayman
12 B. A. C.=Birmingham Aluminum Castings
13 C.N.D.=Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
14 the Administration=the U.S. Government
15 N.C.B. = National Coal Board
16 G.Р.О. = General Post Office
? В данном случае мы выделяем группу подлежащего.
17 E.F.T.A. = European Free Trade Association
18 the Five: five other members of the Common Market (besides France)
19 the Tory Front Bench - руководящий состав партии консерваторов в парламенте
20 M.L.F. = Multi-Lateral Forces
21 A.F.L. = American Federation of Labor
C.I.O.=Congress of Industrial Organizations
22 the Six: the six countries, members of the Common Market
23 the Seven: the seven countries, members of the European Free Trade Association
24 M. I. T. V. s=Multiple Independently Targeted re-entry Vehicles многозарядные разделяющиеся ядерные боеголовки
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